He, Yinghua, Sanxi Li and Jianye Yan (2015), "Evaluating assignment without transfers: A market perspective." Economic Letters, 133(C), 40-44.

All (random) assignments/allocations without transfers can be considered as market outcomes with personalized prices and an equal income. Prices proportional across agents imply efficiency; common prices lead to efficiency and envy-freeness. This market perspective also reveals a weakness of envy-freeness.